Hajj and Umrah Violations and Penalties

The annual pilgrimage to Mecca, known as Hajj, and the lesser pilgrimage, Umrah, hold immense significance for millions of Muslims worldwide. These sacred journeys represent a time of deep spiritual and religious reflection, unity, and devotion.

However, as with any significant event, there are certain rules and regulations that govern the pilgrimage experience. Unfortunately, despite the sanctity attached to these religious obligations, some individuals may unknowingly or intentionally engage in actions leading to violation of the violate the prescribed guidelines. In this blog, we delve into the topic of Hajj and Umrah violations and penalties

By understanding and respecting these regulations, pilgrims can ensure a more fulfilling and lawful experience, ultimately preserving the sanctity of their pilgrimage and avoiding a fine or violation of any type.

3 Categories of Penalties

The penalties of Badanah, Damm, and Sadaqah are integral components of the system designed to uphold the sanctity and integrity of the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. By understanding and respecting these penalties, pilgrims can strive to preserve the sacredness of their journey, foster a deep sense of reverence and respect toward the holy sites and avoid violations.

hajj and umrah violations and penalties for muslim pilgrims

Badanah

Badanah refers to fines or compensation that must be paid as a result of specific violations during Hajj and Umrah. These violations often involve actions that disrupt the peaceful and orderly atmosphere of the pilgrimage.

Examples of Badanah violations include damaging or tampering with the property of the holy sites, engaging in unethical business practices, or disregarding the regulations set forth by the authorities. The fines imposed vary in amount depending on the severity of the violation.

The purpose of the Badanah penalty is twofold: to discourage individuals from committing such acts and to emphasize the importance of preserving the sanctity of the pilgrimage experience. By imposing financial consequences, authorities aim to ensure that pilgrims adhere to the rules and regulations that govern the sacred journey.

Damm

Damm, or the act of offering a sacrifice, serves as a means of expiation for certain violations committed during Hajj or Umrah. These violations are typically intentional transgressions that directly contravene the prescribed rituals and guidelines.

Examples of violations requiring Damm include performing prohibited acts, neglecting obligatory rituals, or displaying disrespectful behavior towards fellow pilgrims or holy sites.

By offering a prescribed sacrifice, individuals seek forgiveness for their actions and strive to purify their souls. The act of Damm reminds pilgrims of the importance of upholding the rituals and values associated with the pilgrimage, reinforcing the spiritual significance of the journey.

It serves as a powerful symbol of repentance and a way to restore one’s spiritual connection with the divine.

Sadaqah

Sadaqah, or acts of voluntary charity, are required to compensate for certain violations committed during Hajj and Umrah. These violations may include actions such as breaking the state of Ihram (the sacred state entered during pilgrimage), omitting obligatory acts, or failing to fulfill specific conditions set for the pilgrimage.

Engaging in acts of Sadaqah allows individuals to rectify their shortcomings and seek forgiveness for their mistakes.

The performance of Sadaqah may take various forms, such as providing food to the needy, supporting charitable causes, or offering financial assistance to those in need. By performing acts of charity, individuals not only make amends for their violations but also demonstrate remorse and a genuine commitment to making a positive impact on society.

Sadaqah acts as a bridge between personal spiritual growth and social welfare, reinforcing the importance of compassion, generosity, and selflessness.

What Invalidates Ihram?

Ihram is a sacred state that pilgrims enter before performing the rituals of Hajj or Umrah. It involves specific actions and restrictions aimed at fostering a sense of purity, focus, and devotion during the pilgrimage.

When in Ihram, pilgrims wear simple, seamless white garments, typically consisting of two pieces of unstitched cloth for men and loose, modest clothing for women.

During the state of Ihram, pilgrims must observe certain restrictions, and there are several actions that can invalidate the Ihram state.

Here is an explanation of whether certain actions invalidate Ihram and the reasons behind it:

invalidating the state of ihram and penalties

Miqat

The act of crossing the designated boundary points known as Miqat marks entry into the state of Ihram. It is a necessary step for performing Hajj or Umrah. However, the penalty for this error can be rectified by going to the Mikaat and properly going into Ihram.

By fulfilling this requirement, the penalty is waived, and the pilgrim can proceed with their sacred journey in accordance with the prescribed rituals.

Fragrances to Skin

Applying fragrances or scented lotions directly to the skin is not permissible in the state of Ihram. Doing so is considered a violation and invalidates Ihram because it contradicts the simplicity and purity associated with the pilgrimage.

Fragrances to Ihram/Clothing

Similarly, applying fragrances or scents to the Ihram garments or clothing is not allowed as it goes against the restrictions of Ihram. However, applying perfume after wearing the Ihram garments and before making the Niyyah for Ihram does not incur any penalty, even if the fragrance persists afterward.

Incensed and Dyed Clothing

Wearing clothing that has been incensed or dyed with fragrances or scents is not permissible in the state of Ihram. The purpose of Ihram is to maintain simplicity and equality among pilgrims, and the use of scented or dyed clothing contradicts these principles.

Holy Kaaba and Fragrances

The Holy Kaaba itself is not scented. Applying fragrances directly to the Kaaba or its surroundings is discouraged, as it can interfere with the natural and pure atmosphere of the holy site.

Scented Products

Using scented products such as perfumes, colognes, or scented oils is not allowed in the state of Ihram. This restriction is in place to ensure that pilgrims focus on their spiritual journey and refrain from worldly distractions.

Henna/Kohl

The use of henna and kohl is permissible during Ihram as long as they do not contain any fragrances or scents. However, it is advisable to avoid using these substances to maintain simplicity and avoid potential misunderstandings.

Stitched Clothing

Wearing stitched or sewn clothing items is not allowed for men in the state of Ihram. Women are permitted to wear stitched clothing as long as it is not form-fitting or attractive.

Footwear

Pilgrims are required to remove regular shoes or socks during Ihram. Instead, they typically wear simple sandals or go barefoot as a symbol of humility and equality.

Covering of the Head/Face

Men are generally discouraged from covering their heads or faces during Ihram. However, it is allowed to protect oneself from extreme weather conditions or to avoid harm and will not invalidate Ihram. 

Women have the option to cover their heads with a loose and simple head covering. If they feel the need to cover their faces in the presence of men, they may do so in a manner that ensures the covering does not directly touch the face.

This option is provided to maintain their comfort and modesty during the pilgrimage. It is important to note that the face should not be completely veiled but rather covered in a way that maintains decency while allowing for visibility.

Cutting, Shaving, or Removal of Hair

Cutting, shaving, or removing hair from the body is prohibited during Ihram, especially for men. This restriction includes shaving the head or trimming a small portion of hair.

Women cannot cut their hair but can trim it slightly for cleanliness. It is recommended to avoid combing while in the state of Ihram. 

Halq and Taqsir

Cutting Nails

Cutting or trimming nails is not permissible during Ihram. Clipping nails multiple times incurs a different penalty for individual instances.

It is important to avoid clipping nails in a scattered manner to prevent multiple penalties. In the case of a broken nail, it can be removed without violating the rules of Ihram or incurring any penalty.

Sexual Relations

Marriage is a sacred relationship in Islam. However, engaging in sexual activities is strictly prohibited during the state of Ihram.

Such actions of marriage invalidate Ihram and require specific rituals to be performed for atonement.  

Lice and Locusts

The presence of lice or locusts does not invalidate Ihram. However, pilgrims are prohibited from killing lice and locusts while in the state of Ihram.

If an item of clothing is washed, resulting in the killing of the lice, no penalty is incurred.

Violations of the Haram

Hunting any animal, whether inside or outside the Haram, is strictly prohibited for individuals in Ihram. The penalty can be fulfilled in different ways, including sacrificing an animal of similar size, assigning a monetary value to the killed animal, and using that money to purchase food, which is then distributed as a charity (Sadaqah) to the poor or observing a fast.

Anyone who causes harm to an animal by plucking its feathers, cutting off its limbs, or engaging in similar actions is responsible for compensating for the reduction in the animal’s value caused by its actions.

If an animal is harmed to the extent of becoming incapacitated, the person responsible is required to pay its full price as compensation. 

Cutting Vegetation

Cutting vegetation within the boundaries of the Haram is prohibited due to its sacredness. Cutting vegetation that is commonly cultivated is permissible. It is allowed to cut “dry” trees within the Haram.  

Violations of Hajj and Umrah Rites & Penalties

Violations of Hajj and Umrah rites can incur penalties, which serve as a means of expiation for the improper or missed performance of specific rituals. Here is a brief overview:

Tawaf al Umrah

  • Engaging in a circuit of Tawaf while in a state of major ritual impurity (requiring Ghusl), experiencing menstruation, or without observing Wudhu (ritual ablution). However, if such an error occurs, the penalty can be waived by repeating the Tawaf and performing it correctly. 
  • Utilizing a mode of transport, such as a wheelchair, for four or more circuits of Tawaf without a valid justification. If this transgression takes place, the penalty can be waived by redoing the Tawaf and ensuring its proper observance. 
  • Wholly omitting the Tawaf al-Umrah. In such a scenario, one must complete the Umrah and subsequently enter into Ihram for another Umrah without trimming or shaving the hair. 
  • The second Umrah must be finalized before any hair is cut. If the hair is trimmed prior to completing the second Umrah, two Damms (penalties) would be obligatory.

Tawaf al Qudum

Performing this Tawaf without Wudhu (ablution). However, if this occurs, the penalty can be waived by repeating the Tawaf and performing it correctly.

  • Omitting three or fewer circuits of Tawaf without a valid reason. In this case, Sadaqah al-Fitr becomes a must for each circuit. 
  • Omitting four or more circuits of Tawaf without a valid reason. In such cases, the penalty is Damm, but it can be waived by repeating the Tawaf and performing it correctly.
  • Performing the Tawaf in a state of major ritual impurity (requiring Ghusl), during menstruation, or after childbirth. However, if this mistake occurs, the penalty can be waived by repeating the Tawaf while being in a state of ritual purity.

Tawaf al Nafl

  • Performing less than four circuits without Wudhu (ablution). In this case, Sadaqah al-Fitr should be given for each circuit. However, the penalty can be waived if the Tawaf is repeated. 
  • Performing the entire Tawaf, or more than four circuits, without Wudhu. This incurs a penalty known as Damm. 
  • Omitting up to three circuits without a valid reason. Sadaqah al-Fitr should be given for each omitted circuit. 
  • Omitting four or more circuits without a valid reason incurs the penalty of Damm. 
  • Using a conveyance, such as a wheelchair, for four or more circuits without a valid reason also incurs the penalty of Damm. 
  • Exposing the Awrah (private parts) to the extent that Salah (prayer) would not be valid if performed in that state. In this case, Sadaqah al-Fitr is required. 
  • Walking through the Hatim while performing Tawaf incurs the requirement of giving Sadaqah al-Fitr. If the Tawaf is repeated and performed properly, the penalty can be waived.

The penalty can be waived if the Tawaf is repeated. 

muslim pilgrims circulating the holy kaaba

Tawaf al-Ziyarah

  • Delaying Tawaf al-Ziyarah without a valid reason incurs the penalty known as Damm.
  • Performing less than four circuits without Wudhu (ablution) requires giving Sadaqah al-Fitr.  
  • Performing the entire Tawaf or more than four circuits without Wudhu incurs the penalty of Damm. 
  • Omitting up to three circuits without a valid reason requires giving Sadaqah al-Fitr for each omitted circuit. 
  • Omitting four or more circuits without a valid reason incurs the penalty of Damm.  
  • Performing the Tawaf in a state of major ritual impurity (requiring Ghusl), during menstruation, or after childbirth incurs the penalty known as Badanah.
  • Having sexual relations (including kissing and touching with desire) after cutting the hair but before Tawaf al-Ziyarah incurs the penalty of Damm. Nonetheless, the Hajj is still considered valid.
  • Using a conveyance, such as a wheelchair, for four or more circuits without a valid reason incurs the penalty of Damm. However, if the Tawaf is repeated and performed properly, the penalty can be waived.
  • Exposing the private parts to the extent that Salah (prayer) would not be valid if performed in that state incurs the penalty of Damm. 
  • Walking through the Hatim while performing Tawaf incurs the penalty of Damm. 

However, if the Tawaf is repeated and performed properly, the penalty can be waived.

Tawaf al-Wida

  • Omitting the Tawaf entirely incurs the penalty known as Damm. However, going back to the Miqat, re-entering into Ihram, and performing the Tawaf shall waive the penalty.
  • Performing Tawaf al-Wida without Wudhu (ablution) requires giving Sadaqah al-Fitr. 
  • Omitting up to three circuits without a valid reason requires giving Sadaqah al-Fitr for each omitted circuit. 
  • Omitting four or more circuits without a valid reason incurs the penalty of Damm. 
  • Performing the Tawaf in a state of major ritual impurity (requiring Ghusl), during menstruation, or after childbirth incurs the penalty of Damm. 
  • Women in a state of major ritual impurity (requiring Ghusl), menstruation, or after childbirth are excused from performing the Tawaf al-Wida if their departure cannot be delayed.

If the Tawaf is repeated and performed correctly, the penalty can be waived.

Sa’i of Hajj and Umrah

  • Omitting all seven circuits of Sa’i without a valid reason incurs the penalty of Damm. However, if the Sa’i is repeated and performed properly, the penalty can be waived.
  • Omitting four or more circuits of Sa’i without a valid reason incurs the penalty of Damm. Nevertheless, if the Sa’i is repeated and performed properly, the penalty can be waived.
  • Omitting less than four circuits of Sa’i without a valid reason requires giving Sadaqah al-Fitr for each omitted circuit.
  • Using a conveyance, such as a wheelchair, during Sa’i without a valid reason incurs the penalty of Damm. However, if the Sa’i is repeated and performed properly, the penalty can be waived.
  • Using a conveyance, such as a wheelchair, midway through the Sa’i without a valid reason requires giving Sadaqah al-Fitr. Nonetheless, if the Sa’i is repeated and performed properly, the penalty can be waived.

Mina

  • For those performing Hajj Al-Tamattu or Al-Qiran, not following the correct sequence of rites on Dhul Hijjah, 10th, incurs the penalty of Damm.
  • Delaying the slaughter of the animal until after sunset on the 12th of Dhul Hijjah incurs the penalty of Damm.
  • Hajj al-Tamattu or Hajj al-Qiran pilgrims who cannot afford animal sacrifice require fasting for 10 days.
  • Trimming or shaving the hair outside the boundaries of the Haram incurs the penalty of Damm.
  • Delaying the cutting of the hair until after sunset on the 12th of Dhul Hijjah without a valid reason incurs the penalty of Damm.

mina also known as the city of tents in makkah madinah

Day of Arafat

  • Leaving the boundary of Arafat for Muzdalifah before sunset on the 9th of Dhul Hijjah incurs the penalty of Damm. The penalty can be waived if the person returns to Arafat before sunset. However, if the person returns after sunset, the penalty will remain.
  • Proceeding directly from Arafat to Mina without performing Wuquf in Muzdalifah without a valid reason incurs the penalty of Damm. It’s important to note that women, children, the elderly, and the infirm are exempt from this penalty and can go directly to Mina without any penalty.

Night of Muzdalifah

  • Arriving at Muzdalifah on the morning of the 10th of Dhul Hijjah after sunrise without a valid reason incurs the penalty of Damm.
  • Exiting Muzdalifah before Fajr on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah without a valid reason incurs the penalty of Damm. The penalty can be waived if the pilgrim returns to Muzdalifah prior to the time of Fajr. However, if the person returns after Fajr, the penalty will remain.

Rami

  • Omitting pelting for one day or more incurs a Damm penalty.
  • Omitting up to three pebbles when pelting the Jamarah al-Aqaba on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah requires giving Sadaqah al-Fitr for each missed pebble. Completely missing pelting on this day results in a Damm penalty.
  • Omitting up to 10 pebbles on the 11th, 12th, or 13th of Dhul Hijjah necessitates giving Sadaqah al-Fitr for each missed pebble.
  • Omitting the pelting of an entire Jamarat on the 11th, 12th, or 13th of Dhul Hijjah requires giving Sadaqah al-Fitr for seven pebbles. If two or three Jamarat are omitted on these days, a Damm penalty is due.
  • Performing the Hady (animal sacrifice) before pelting on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah incurs a Damm penalty.
  • Pelting after sunset on the 13th of Dhul Hijjah incurs a Damm penalty.
  • Pelting on behalf of another person without a valid excuse incurs a Damm penalty. The penalty is borne by the person on whose behalf the pelting is carried out

How to Give Damm for Umrah?

To give damm for Umrah, you need to offer a sacrifice of a permissible animal, such as a sheep or goat.

The sacrifice should be performed in Makkah, preferably in the designated areas or through authorized agents. The meat from the sacrifice can be distributed to the poor and needy.

What is Umrah Dam Amount?

The amount of damm for Umrah is typically the equivalent of the cost of a sheep or goat. It is recommended to check with local authorities or scholars for the current applicable amount.

What is Fidya for Umrah?

Fidya is compensation given for not being able to perform certain acts during Umrah due to a valid reason, such as health issues or incapacity.

The amount of fidya for Umrah varies, and it is advised to consult with scholars or local authorities to determine the appropriate amount.

Where to Give Damm in Makkah?

The damm (sacrifice) for Umrah is usually given in Makkah. There are designated areas and authorized agents available to facilitate the process.

It is advisable to seek guidance from local authorities or consult with scholars to ensure the proper execution of the Damm.

Removing Ihram without Performing Umrah

If a person removes their Ihram without performing Umrah, there is no specific penalty or damm associated with it.

However, it is recommended to seek forgiveness from Allah and, if desired, perform Umrah at a later time when it is possible to enter the state of Ihram again.

Can You Touch the Kaaba during Umrah?

During Umrah, it is permissible to touch the Kaaba if it can be done without causing harm or inconvenience to oneself or others.

However, it is important to respect the sanctity of the Kaaba and follow the guidelines and instructions provided by the authorities overseeing the pilgrimage.

Can I Go to Umrah with Debt?

Going for Umrah while having debt is generally permissible. However, it is advisable to fulfill your financial obligations and clear any outstanding debts before embarking on the journey. It is important to be responsible and prioritize your financial responsibilities.

What Happens If I Break Wudu During Umrah?

Breaking wudu (ablution) during Umrah does not invalidate the entire Umrah. You can simply perform the necessary actions to renew your wudu and continue with your Umrah rituals.

It is recommended to be mindful of maintaining wudu as much as possible and to renew it whenever necessary.

Am I Allowed to Use Toothpaste during Hajj and Umrah?

Using toothpaste during Hajj and Umrah is generally permissible. However, it is advised to use a small amount and ensure that it is free from any intoxicants.

It is important to follow the guidelines and practices of personal hygiene while being mindful of the sanctity and rules of the pilgrimage.

Summary – Hajj and Umrah Violations and Penalties

Performing Hajj and Umrah are deeply spiritual and significant journeys for Muslims around the world. These acts of worship hold great importance and carry a sense of devotion, purification, and unity.

Throughout this blog, we have also discussed Hajj and Umrah violations and penalties, emphasizing the importance of following the prescribed rituals and guidelines. From omitting certain acts to performing them in an incorrect manner, these violations carry penalties such as Damm (sacrifice), Sadaqah al-Fitr (charitable offering), or fasting.

It is crucial to approach Hajj and Umrah with sincerity, knowledge, and a deep understanding of the rituals and their significance. Seek guidance from scholars, adhere to the rules and regulations set by the authorities, and strive to perform these acts of worship in the best possible manner.

Ultimately, Hajj and Umrah are not just physical journeys but transformative experiences that nurture the spirit, strengthen faith, and foster unity among the global Muslim community.

May Allah accept the Hajj and Umrah of all those who undertake this sacred journey and grant them spiritual growth, forgiveness, and blessings!

Through His Names

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