Tawaf al-Qudum – Everything you need to know
Tawaf is defined as the act of circumambulating around the Holy Kaaba. Also known as the ‘Tawaf of Arrival,’ Tawaf al-Qudum has to be performed by any Muslim visiting the Holy Kaaba with the intention to perform Hajj al-Ifrad or Hajj al-Qiran. Keep reading to learn more about Tawaf al-Qudum.
What Is Tawaf al-Qudum?
Apart from the difference in intention, the rituals of Tawaf al-Qudum are almost similar to Tawaf al-Umrah. Tawaf al-Qudum is performed by non-resident pilgrims who travel to the city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, with the intention to perform Hajj.
According to most Islamic scholars, performing the ‘Tawaf of Arrival’ is a Sunnah. Therefore, when performing Tawaf al-Qudum, it is essential to wear the Ihram and perform Idtiba and Rami.
The time to perform Tawaf al-Qudum begins the moment you enter the sacred city of Makkah. On several occasions, different Islamic scholars have said that it’s Mustahab (compulsory) to perform Tawaf al-Qudum as soon as possible.
This is primarily because the purpose of Tawaf al-Qudum is to present your Salam to the House of Allah SWT. Furthermore, it is also believed that the time to perform Tawaf al-Qudum ends on the 9th of Dhul Hijjah, the day you stay at Arafat because after that, you are supposed to perform Tawaf al-Ifadah or Tawaf al-Ziyarah.
Note that you don’t have to perform Tawaf al-Qudum if you are going for Umrah, as the Tawaf of Umrah liberates pilgrims from it.
How to Perform Tawaf al-Qudum
Ideally, Tawaf al-Qudum should be performed by pilgrims the moment they enter the premises of Masjid al-Haram (the Grand Mosque) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. It is recommended to perform the Welcome Tawaf before praying Tahiyyat al-Masjid. Simply put, a pilgrim must circle the Holy Kaaba in an anti-clockwise direction first and then perform the prayer.
Tawaf is performed by walking around the Holy Kaaba seven times, starting from Hajar Aswad (Black Stone) and walking towards Hijr Ismail. In order to perform Tawaf al-Qudum, you must be free from all impurities (major and minor) and be clear of najas (filth) on your clothes and body.
In case your wudu breaks during Tawaf al-Qudum, you are advised to re-do your ablution and continue the Tawaf from where you stopped. On reaching the Hajar Aswad (Black Stone), you must touch it and kiss it. In case you are at a distance, it is advised to raise your hand towards Hajar Aswad (Black Stone).
The Messenger (PBUH) of Allah SWT recommended making zikr and supplication while performing Tawaf. The best dua to recite is the dua recited by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):
اللهم ربنا آتنا فى الدنيا حسنة وفى الآخرة حسنة وقنا عذاب النار
بسم الله والحمد لله
اللهم صلّ على محمد وعلى آله وسلّم
اللهم اغفر لى ذنوبى
وافتح لى أبواب فضلك
Translation: One leaves the mosque, stepping out with one’s left foot first, and says: I start with the Name of Allah. Praise be to Him. O Allah, raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his Al and protect his nation from that which he fears for them. O Allah, forgive my sins. Open for me the Gates of Your Generosity (Guide me to the ways in which I may earn Your Generosity).
Furthermore, it is a Sunnah to perform Idtiba during Tawaf al-Qudum. Idtiba is observed by men. It is the practice of uncovering your right shoulder during all the seven circles of the Tawaf.
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ كَثِيرٍ، أَخْبَرَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنِ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ يَعْلَى، عَنْ يَعْلَى، قَالَ طَافَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم مُضْطَبِعًا بِبُرْدٍ أَخْضَرَ .
Ya’la (RA) narrated: “The Messenger (PBUH) of Allah SWT went round the House (the Kaaba) wearing a green Yamani mantle under his right armpit with the end over his left shoulder.” [Narrated in Sunan Abu Dawud]
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو سَلَمَةَ، مُوسَى حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ خُثَيْمٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأَصْحَابَهُ اعْتَمَرُوا مِنَ الْجِعْرَانَةِ فَرَمَلُوا بِالْبَيْتِ وَجَعَلُوا أَرْدِيَتَهُمْ تَحْتَ آبَاطِهِمْ قَدْ قَذَفُوهَا عَلَى عَوَاتِقِهِمُ الْيُسْرَى .
Abdullah ibn Abbas narrated: “Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his companions performed Umrah from al-Ji’ranah. They went quickly round the House (the Kaaba), moving their shoulders proudly. They put their upper garments under their armpits and threw the ends over their left shoulders.” Narrated in Sunan Abu Dawud]
Another important ritual of Tawaf al-Qudum is performing Rami al-Jamarat, otherwise known as the stoning of the devil. After circumambulating the Holy Kaaba, you are expected to walk towards the Jamarat and perform Rami of all three: Jamarat al-Aqaba, Jamarat al-Wusta, and Jamarat al-Ula.
What Is Tawaf Al Ifadah?
Performed on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah, according to Islamic scholars, you can perform Tawaf al-Ifadah any time from midnight of the day of sacrifice till you plan to get out of the state of Ihram.
Ideally, the best time to perform Tawaf al-Ifadah is before noon on the day of sacrifice, before returning to Mina. Tawaf al-Ifadah is an essential ritual of Hajj, and if missed, your pilgrimage will be considered void or invalid.
According to Islamic scholars, the Sunnah of performing Tawaf al-Ifadah is as follows:
Start by making a pure intention to perform Tawaf al-Ifadah for Hajj. Then, circumambulate around the Holy Kaaba seven times, offer two Rakat of prayer at the Station of Ibrahim (Maqam Ibrahim), perform Sai between mount Safa and Marwa, and last but not the least, drink water from the Zamzam well.
Performing Tawaf al-Ifadah frees you from all the restrictions of Hajj, allowing you to get back into your casual clothes. Note that you must try not to delay Tawaf al-Ifadah beyond the 11th, 12th, and 13th Dhul Hijjah.
Different Tawaf Types
Whether you are going to perform Hajj or Umrah, there are five types of Tawaf that you must know about:
- Tawaf al-Qudum: When visiting Makkah for Hajj Al-Ifraad or Hajj Al-Qiraan, it is mandatory to perform Tawaf al-Qudum before the dawn of the 9th of Dhul Hijjah.
- Tawaf al-Umrah: Whether you are planning to perform Hajj al-Tamattu or Umrah, performing Tawaf al-Umrah is a compulsion. After the Tawaf, you must pray two Rakat Salah and perform the ritual of Sai.
- Tawaf al-Wida: If you have performed Tamattu, Ifrad, or Qiraan Hajj, then performing Tawaf al-Wida before leaving Makkah is necessary.
- Tawaf al-Ifadah: It is recommended to perform Tawaf al-Ifadah (Tawaf al-Ziyarah) on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah before returning to Mina to carry out the ritual of Rami al-Jamarat.
- Nafl Tawaf: It is a voluntary Tawaf and can be performed by you as many times as you like.
Summary – Tawaf Al-Qudum
If you are planning to visit Makkah with the intention to perform Hajj, make sure to perform Tawaf al-Qudum as soon as you enter the premises of Masjid al-Haram. Tawaf al-Qudum should be performed in the state of Ihram, followed by Rami and Idtiba.